中國孔廟保護協會

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                        欄目導航

                        孔廟中修建欞星門的意義

                        來源:未知發布:孔廟保護協會日期:2017-01-24點擊:

                        蘇州文廟欞星門

                        在我國文廟建筑里,常有欞星門的建筑,這是文廟中很普遍的制度。一般將它建立在泮地和影壁之間,泮地和圣門或者是建立在泮地和戟門中間。欞星門的建筑主要是和文廟建筑群總體布局有很大關系。我國宋元明這幾個王朝對儒教很重視,建立尊孔制度,如宋代按唐代制度于元符崇寧年間在各圣廟內加圣像,將大殿定名為大成殿建立文廟;元武宗于曲阜設置室圣廟進行歌樂;到明朝洪武二年下令天下郡縣皆之孔廟。到了清代建文廟更為普遍。因此,文廟建筑中布局從前至后,規模較大,由許多個體建筑組成,其中分為前后兩部分,前半部是陪襯建筑作為儀禮部分,在儀禮部分中有影壁、圣門、欞星門、泮池、文昌樓……,后半部是主體建筑作為祭奠部分,在祭奠部分有戟門大成殿、東西廡等,這前后兩部分的建筑都由一條中軸線貫穿著。

                        由圣門進入廟內,有泮池和欞星門,構成一個前院,它標示著孔廟的禮制,廟內院子多,門的式樣也有變化,也可以說是標表氣魄壯麗的裝飾性的建筑。如同住宅里的垂花二門。這種建筑也常常用在臣子的陵墓前、祠廟和住宅里,它的形象和牌坊非常接近,它的建造意義和牌坊也有相同之點。但是兩者的區別無論是從形式還是內容上看都是不同的。

                        其實欞星門式樣也不完全一致,例如《龍魚河圖》一書曰:“天鎮星主得士之慶,其精下為欞星之神”,按學宮,孔子廟前有欞星門,蓋取得士意。

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