中國孔廟保護協會

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                        孔廟建筑規制及功能

                        來源:《中國孔廟》《四川文廟發布:孔廟保護協會日期:2017-03-07點擊:

                         現代曲阜孔廟總平面圖

                        從歷史上看,文廟建筑、布局,經歷了一個由小到大,由闕里到京城、再到地方的過程,而文廟建筑群布局的最終定式化大約是在明代。與其他古代建筑的庭院組群一樣,中國孔廟普遍采用均衡對稱的方式,沿著縱軸線與橫軸線進行設計,其中多數以縱軸線為主,橫軸線為輔。按縱軸線上的庭院劃分,國內孔廟可以歸納為九進院落、三進院落等幾種主要形式。

                        九進院落,完全享受國家的規格。目前僅有曲阜孔廟有此規格。第一院落為欞星門至圣時門;第二院落為圣時門至壁水橋;第三院落為壁水橋至弘道門;第四院落為弘道門至大中門;第五院落為大中門至奎文閣;第六為奎文閣至大成門。由大成門起分東西兩路:第七為西路啟圣門——啟圣殿——圣王寢殿。第八為東路承圣門——崇圣祠——家廟。第九為寢殿——圣跡殿。從曲阜孔廟的布局可以看出橫軸線上兩側幾乎全是一一對稱的建筑,充分顯示出等級森嚴的氣氛。

                        自唐以來,各地孔廟均以曲阜孔廟組群為基本模式,所有建筑格局都不能超過其建筑式樣,其禮制必須低于曲阜孔廟。目前,曲阜孔廟作為孔子家廟享有孔廟禮制的最高規格:九進院落、大成殿面闊九間、重檐歇山式、黃色琉璃瓦、龍柱、角樓、漢白玉欄桿等均為皇家宮殿建筑群式樣、北京孔廟作為皇家祭孔廟宇,在一定程度上也享有此規格。二府州文廟一般按照七間的規格,縣文廟一般按照五間的規格或七間或三間。府州縣文廟大成殿的開間一般不會超過七間。府文廟其蓋瓦為琉璃瓦,縣文廟為琉璃瓦或者青筒瓦。其建筑式樣為重檐歇山式、單檐歇山式,也有為數不多的硬山式一般沒有沿革限制。依據地方經濟實力和地方官員對儒家文化的重視程度,其大成殿建筑規模在此范圍內變化。

                        三進院落,是地方孔廟比較普遍的禮制。一般由萬仞宮墻至大成門為第一進,大成門至大成殿為第二進,大成殿至崇圣祠為第三進。

                        在選址和布局上,地方孔廟多能遵守朝廷坐北朝南圖式,“萬仞宮墻”就是孔廟建筑之南始端。

                        1、萬仞宮墻

                        文廟最前面的主體建筑,起照壁、屏風的作用,正面鐫刻萬仞宮墻,或宮墻萬仞,或宮墻數仞,此語出《論語·子張》:“叔孫武叔語大夫于朝,曰:‘子貢賢于仲尼。’子服景伯以告子貢。子貢曰:‘譬之宮墻,賜之墻也及肩,窺見室家之好。夫子之墻數仞,不得其門而入,不見宗廟之美、百官之富。得其門者或寡矣。’”引用詞語,意在勉勵學習。

                        由萬仞宮墻起始的第一進院落還包括泮池、欞星門、戟門,兩側建筑包括圣域、賢關兩坊(有的為禮門、義路或德配天、道冠古今坊等)、鄉賢祠、名宦祠、更衣所、陳設所、神廚、祭器庫等。

                        2、圣域、賢關或禮門、義路

                        位于照墻兩側,是文廟的出入口。建筑沒有定式,或作前坊后屋式,如德陽文廟,或作門廡式,如資中文廟,或作隨墻拱形門,如富順文廟。

                        3、欞(靈)星門

                        古代重要的祭祀性建筑,欞星即天田星,是天帝座前三星,宋時因“王者居象之,故以名門”。欞星門使用等級規格只限于高等級祭祀性的建筑。

                        欞星門是文廟建筑群中軸線上的牌樓式木制或石結構的重要建筑,一般石構居多。雕刻裝飾較為精美,主見于上下石枋和坊心邊框。就內容和題材而言,明間枋上多采用浮雕技法雕刻龍鳳題材,次間枋上浮雕卷云,祥禽瑞獸、祥花瑞草等裝飾。明間坊頂部不施裝飾或施寶頂。

                         4、泮池

                        又稱泮水,是地方官學標志。由于古代帝王立學名“辟雍”,四周環水,中央建堂,俯瞰如玉璧。諸侯所設學校在等級上低于皇帝,因此只能以半水環之,故稱“泮水”。泮池一般為半圓形,壁為石砌。或位于欞星門前面,或位于欞星門后面。池邊及橋上均施望柱、欄板,欄板一般為整石,不施雕刻。

                        除一廟一池外,還有一廟兩池的,即有內外兩個泮池,但嚴格意義上的泮池仍舊是內泮池外泮池或以湖為池,或以溪為池。

                        5、大成門(戟門)

                        《孟子·萬章》:“孔子之謂集大成。集大成也者,金聲而玉振之也,金聲也者,始條理也。玉振之也者,終條理也。”大成門由正門與側門構成,平時側門開啟,正門只有在祭祀孔子的時候才開啟。宋太祖建隆三年(962年),詔廟門立戟十六,用正一品禮。徽宗大觀四年(1110年)又增加到二十四戟。這種戟是一種禮儀器,木制,無刃,在門庭設專架二列,列戟的多少與官職的高低相關,因此大成門又稱戟門。大成門左右設更衣所,陳列所或齋宿所或祭器庫、禮器庫等附屬建筑,建筑體量要低于大成門。

                        第二進院落是文廟的主題部分,大成殿位于中軸線上,前有拜臺,臺周設欄板;兩側為兩廡。也有在此院落附屬其它建筑的,如德陽文廟在第二進院落內還有禮樂亭、鐘鼓樓和御碑亭。

                        6、大成殿

                        大成殿是孔子的享殿,也是文廟建筑群最重要的建筑。殿前有月臺,與大成殿形成“凸”子形布局。拜臺是舉行祭孔儀式的主要場所。大成殿之名始于宋,明嘉靖以來殿內正中供孔子牌位,兩側為四配、十二哲的牌位。

                        大成殿與拜臺相連,但臺基要高于拜臺。臺基一般為青石砌筑,有的作須彌座式。屋頂很少用建筑等級最好的廡殿式,以單檐或者重檐歇山式最常見,屋面不拘一格,或鋪黃色琉璃瓦,或鋪青筒瓦,或鋪青板瓦(蝴蝶瓦),地方特色較為濃厚。

                        大成殿裝飾題材內容多位等級最高的龍峰裝飾,裝飾部位包括御路、柱礎石、柱、撐栱、雀替、脊部等,方法除了雕刻外,還有灰塑和嵌瓷。

                        7、東、西廡

                        位于大成殿與大成門之間的兩側,是附祭孔子的弟子及歷代名賢大儒之所。在位置的設置上,南端為孔子弟子,北端為名賢大儒。關于兩廡祭祀的先賢先儒的人數和位次,歷代多有變化,清初從祀先賢先儒人數為97人,到了清末人數達到156人。

                        第三進院落以崇圣祠為主,東西兩側為配殿。

                        8、崇圣祠

                        又稱啟圣宮、啟圣殿、啟圣祠,是文廟建筑群最后一進院落中的主體建筑。崇圣祠是傳道同時注重孝道的產物,為祭祀孔子先祖五世的場所。現存文廟崇圣祠多位于大成殿后,這也是官定的位置。但也有例外,如資中文廟崇圣祠則居于大成殿后右側。

                        崇圣祠多為帶前廊或回廊建筑。減柱柱網結構,徹上露明造。梁架結構采用抬梁、穿斗混合式兩架結構。一般為單檐歇山式建筑,屋面或覆蓋琉璃瓦,或覆蓋青筒瓦、板瓦。

                        東、西配殿從祀宋代名儒周敦頤等五人之父。

                        此外,有的文廟在崇圣祠后還有尊經閣或敬一亭。但兩者均為單體建筑,不形成院落。尊經閣與敬一亭因其功能一般附于學中,但也有附于廟者,較少。

                        尊經閣始建于宋,宋稱“御書閣”,一般高兩層,除了上層藏書外,下層也有供奉孔子和一些名儒塑像者。如浙江嘉禾縣文廟。

                        敬一亭建于明嘉靖年間,初今在翰林院,后推及兩京國學及地方各學。在學宮建筑中多建于學署中。

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