中國孔廟保護協會

                        有朋自遠方來-孔子
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                        東京孔子廟

                        來源:未知發布:孔廟保護協會日期:2017-01-25點擊:

                        東京孔子廟(又稱湯島圣堂)位于東京文京區一丁目,是1690年由德川五代將軍綱吉創建的,當時作為講授、傳播以孔子為代表的儒學和祭祀孔子的場所。1797年德川幕府直轄的中心學校--昌平坂學問所也設立于此,成為德川時代研究學問和進行教育的基地。明治時代初葉,日本文部省、國立博物館、東京師范學校(今筑波大學)、東京女子師范學校(今御茶水女子大學)均設立于此。因而,它又是日本近代教育的發祥地。

                        東京孔子廟建筑特色

                        東京孔子廟歷經磨難,多次因地震和戰火被毀,現在的建筑是“二戰”后日本按原式樣重建的。其正門為“仰高門”,朱漆綠瓦,氣宇軒昂。此門之名取自《論語·子罕篇》的“仰之彌高,鉆之彌堅”句,以表示對孔子學問和道德的敬仰。進入“仰高門”后,古木參天,鳥語花香,濃郁古風,撲面而來。尤其是一座高5米左右、重量大約1.5噸的孔子銅像,令人肅然起敬,似乎“至圣先師”正在對來者提面命,諄諄教導。

                        此銅像立于1975年11月3日日本文化節,當時為世界最大孔子銅像。銅像旁栽有一棵有80余年歷史的“孔子樹”,它是日本林學博士白溝保美1915年從中國曲阜孔墓旁取來的樹種。拾級而上,經“入德門”,穿“杏德門”,進入“大成殿”。該殿正中高臺帶門的漆龕內供奉著至圣先師孔子銅像,高38厘米,是明代遺臣朱舜水從中國攜至。左面略低的高臺漆龕中供有“宗圣曾子之位”和“亞圣孟子之位”,右面略低的高臺漆龕中供有“復圣顏子之位”和“述圣子思之位”。此外,左右兩面的臺桌上供有子路、子貢、子張等孔子其他10位弟子的牌位。

                        東京孔子廟文化價值

                        東京孔子廟至今還是日本傳播東方傳統文化的重要基地。日本“斯文會”每年在此舉行數十次講座,其內容有《論語》、《孟子》、《莊子》、《周易》、《史記》、“唐詩”、《三國志》、《紅樓夢》等等,主講人多為日本各大學名譽教授、文學博士、學術名流,聽眾有青年學生、公司職員、退休老人、家庭主婦等。因而可以說,東京孔子廟不僅僅是一座歷史古跡,而且是一片至今仍發揮著重要作用的文化綠洲。

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