中國孔廟保護協會

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                        首爾成均館

                        來源:未知發布:admin日期:2017-01-25點擊:

                        首爾成均館(韓國文廟)是以中央官學成均館為中心形成的輻射全國的廟學合一體系,至今仍在規范有序的運行。成均館位于韓國首爾市中路區明倫洞3街53號,如今與著名的成均館大學一處,為韓國的儒學研究中心和傳統禮教的中心,每年春秋兩季的祭孔大典都會如期舉行,實踐著廟與學的完整合一,帶領地方現存200余所鄉校和500余所書院的崇儒祭孔活動。

                        歷史沿革

                        韓國首爾文廟成均館,其前身為建立于13世紀高麗時代的開城國子監,當時同一時期是中國的宋朝,因此建筑均仿宋代建制,但相比中國的孔廟規格稍低,建筑大多為簡單質樸的風格。在遷都后的朝鮮王朝,這里是當時國家的最高學府,相當于中國的國子監,因建立之時尚屬唐宋之屬國,不能越禮,遂命名為“成均監”,名稱源于《周禮》的五帝之學,南曰成均,“大司樂掌成均之法,以治建國之學政”,取其調和諧音律,無過無不及之意。后來就干脆稱為“成均館”了。

                        韓國首爾成均館大成殿供奉孔子及其弟子15位先賢位牌和朱子為首的性理學大家6位先賢的位牌,另外還供奉18位韓國性理學先賢,總共為39位。在這里,一年舉行春秋兩季大型釋奠祭祀活動,是現存各國孔廟中唯一完整的保存祭孔典禮原貌的文廟,在韓國被稱為“釋奠祭”。釋奠祭自中國宋代,韓國的高麗時期傳入韓國,中經改朝換代一度中斷。后在朝鮮世宗大王時復原后,一直延續至今。

                        “釋奠祭”在朝鮮時期一直是重要的國家級祭祀活動,由國王親臨主持,有64人組成的舞團和兩個樂隊專門從事祭孔典禮,場面十分莊嚴隆重。直到今天韓國成均館仍然設有專門的組織機構,負責籌備一年兩次的釋奠祭祀,并有“釋奠教育院”培訓祭祀禮節、樂舞等等,能夠如此組織正規嚴密,一絲不茍的繼續著祭孔活動的,僅此成均館一座文廟。

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