中國孔廟保護協會

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                        西安孔廟

                        來源:未知發布:admin日期:2017-02-16點擊:

                        西安孔廟,唐時在尚書省西隅國子監附近。宋代幾經搬遷,崇寧二年(1103年)虞策將文廟、府學最終遷建于“府城之東南隅”,即西安碑林博物館現址,使文廟、碑林、府學同在一處。據《京兆府重修府學記》碑載,這時的文廟:“總五百楹,宏模廓度,偉冠一時。”隨著時代的變遷,孔廟現保留的多是明清時期的建筑。

                        明成化十一年(1475年)《重修西安府學文廟記》云:“ 擴其舊址,首建大成殿七間,崇四丈有五、深五丈,袤九丈有二。兩廡各三十間,崇深視殿半之,袤且數倍。次作戟門,又次欞星門,又次文昌祠,七賢祠、神廚、齋宿房、泮池 …… 。”加之明萬歷二十年(1592年)增建的“ 太和元氣坊”及清代構建的七座碑亭,基本上構成了今日西安孔廟的建筑格局。

                        西安孔廟最主要的建筑大成殿,是一座宏偉的明代廡殿式建筑,可惜于 1959 年毀于雷火。貫穿于中軸線上的孔廟其它建筑如兩廡、戟門、欞星門、泮水橋、太和元氣坊、碑亭等建筑至今還保存完好。其中的戟門面闊三間,進深兩間,單檐歇山頂,上鋪綠色琉璃瓦,仍保持著明代建筑的顯著特征。


                        太和元氣坊•泮水橋

                        太和元氣坊建于明萬歷二十年(1592年),取“合會大利,利貞萬物”之意。“天子之學有辟雍,諸候之學有泮宮”,泮水橋為古時學宮之橋。

                        戟門

                        古時宗廟、陵墓門前列戟多少是衡量主人身份的—個重要標志。

                         

                         

                        碑亭

                           清代建筑,亭中的碑刻是清代平定西北戰亂內容的記功碑。

                         


                        大夏石馬

                        十六國時代匈奴族鐵弗部建立的大夏國真興六年的作品,國寶級文物,高200厘米,長255厘米,原立于長安縣查家寨。

                         
                        景云鐘

                        鑄于唐景云二年,國寶級文物,高247厘米,口徑165厘米,原在唐景龍觀。鐘上鑄有唐睿宗李旦親自撰文并書寫的銘文,是李旦鮮有的傳世字跡中的佳作。

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