中國孔廟保護協會

                        有朋自遠方來-孔子
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                        曲阜孔廟

                        來源:中國孔廟保護協會發布:孔廟保護協會日期:2017-02-21點擊:

                         

                        大成殿

                        萬仞宮墻

                        金聲玉振坊

                        孔廟是祭祀孔子的廟宇。孔子是我國春秋末期著名的思想家、教育家,被尊為儒家學派的創始人。孔子在一生艱辛探索的社會實踐中,深入了解和認識了當時社會,逐步創立了儒家思想的基本體系,成為當時著名的政治理論家、教育家、思想家。他創立的儒學思想在中國乃至世界歷史上都有著很大的影響。孔子死后第二年(公元前478年),魯哀公將孔子生前所居之堂改做“壽堂”,房屋三間,里面陳列著孔子使用過的“衣、冠、琴、車、書”,“因以為廟,歲時奉祀”,即每年按時祭祀。
                        漢高祖劉邦十二年(公元前195年),“帝幸闕里,以太牢祀孔子”,即以整牛、整羊、整豬祭祀孔子,成為第一個祭祀孔子的皇帝。至漢武帝時期,著名思想家董仲舒為了迎合漢武帝,在創立了“神學目的論”以后,提出“罷黜百家,獨尊儒術”,這時的儒家思想已是經過戰國時期的“百家爭鳴”,經過“思、孟學派”及荀子對孔子思想的進一步發展,又冠以董仲舒神學思想的“天人感應”論,使孔子原始思想大為改觀,以后逐漸成為整個中國封建社會的正統思想。
                        從公元220年到解放前,孔廟先后重修擴建七十多次。歷經兩千余年的歷代重修擴充,便得曲阜孔廟形成了規模宏大的古代建筑群。共占地約14萬平方米,殿堂閣廡466間,門坊54座,碑亭17座。規模之大,與北京故宮、承德避暑山莊并稱為全國三大古建筑群。
                        孔廟的總體布局是由孔子當年的故居長期發展而來的,至今已有二千四百余年的歷史。在整體建筑方面,孔廟采用古代傳統的宮庭式建筑形式。但它經過歷史上的多次重修擴建,每當重修擴建的時候,它必然要受到前代孔廟建筑形制、規模等因素限制,然而,孔廟的建筑群體最終成功地利用了先代遺產,既體現了歷史遺產的延續,又保持了它的總體的完整性。孔廟是孔子故宅擴建而成的,它保存了許多有關孔子的古跡,如故宅井、詩禮堂、魯壁、金絲堂以及為紀念孔子講學建造的杏壇等;其次是王者宗廟因素,如門戟之制,前殿后寢之制等;第三是宮庭因素,如天子五門之制,王城角樓之制,東、西華門等;第四是宗族家廟因素,如啟圣殿、崇圣祠、家廟等;第五是祭祀因素,在孔廟被祭祀者除孔子、四配、十二哲外,還有先賢先儒、祖先等總數達二百余人,這樣為容納大批的從祀者神位,就須得設立廊廡,由此便形成了廊廡院落。除以上幾個因素外,還突出地表現了孔子的圣人地位及孔孟之道的神圣性,如泮池、璧水、牌坊等,并以書樓象征孔子在學術方面的偉大成就。孔廟成功地運用了傳統的庭院組合與環境烘托相結合的表現手法,達到了渲染孔子在學術上、教育上的卓越貢獻和在古代社會中崇高地位的目的,是中國古代建筑群中別具一格的建筑形制。
                        孔廟的主要用途是祭祀孔子及先賢先儒,這也是孔子后裔的主要職責。孔廟祭祀分為釋奠儀、月朔釋菜儀、月望、行香儀、歲時常祭儀、告祭儀、祭中興祖儀、皇帝親祭大典、御遣官祭告儀等種類。
                        孔廟作為紀念性建筑群體,廟內的石碑也就成了它的一個組成部分。廟內共保存了歷代石碑一千二百余塊。主要有修廟記、祭文、諭詔、贊辭、記銘等。有一部分是建國后為保護文物移進孔廟的。另外還有漢畫像石刻、玉虹樓法帖等,也是建國后移進去的。在我國現存石碑中占有較高的地位,號稱中國三大碑林之一,有較高的歷史和書法藝術價值。
                        孔廟內現有古樹一千二百余棵,與宏偉的建筑群相互輝映,特別是夏季,上千只鷺鳥居住在古木之上,形成了孔廟又一獨特的景觀,鷺鳥已被曲阜市定為市鳥。
                        孔廟集歷史、建筑、文化、藝術、書法、石刻、古木、文物、遺跡于一體,是我國古代勞動人民智慧的結晶,是珍貴的文化遺產,1961年被國務院公布為第一批全國重點文物保護單位。建國后,政府多次撥款維修,使其保持原貌。1994年,經聯合國教科文批準,孔廟、孔府、孔林列入世界文化遺產名錄。

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