中國孔廟保護協會

                        有朋自遠方來-孔子
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                        北京孔廟

                        來源:中國孔廟保護協會發布:孔廟保護協會日期:2017-02-20點擊:

                         

                         

                        國子監辟雍

                        北京孔廟大成殿

                         

                        北京孔廟大成殿

                        國子監辟雍

                         

                        孔廟和國子監博物館位于北京東城區國子監街北側,由國子監和孔廟兩座古建筑群構成。國子監創建于元至元二十四年(1287年),大德十年(1306年)增建,至大元年(1308年)建成;北京孔廟始建于元大德六年(1302年),大德十年(1306年)建成。國子監于1961年成為第一批全國重點文物保護單位,北京孔廟于1988年成為第三批全國重點文物保護單位。

                        國子監建筑群坐北朝南,現存三進院落,占地面積29000多平方米。中軸線上的建筑由南至北依次為集賢門、太學門、琉璃牌坊,辟雍殿,彝倫堂,敬一亭。中軸線兩側分布著二廳六堂、御碑亭、鐘鼓亭。集賢門是國子監的大門,太學門是二門,兩門之間構成國子監的前院。太學門內為第二進院落,是國子監古時的主要辦公和教學區,清乾隆四十八年(1783年)增建琉璃牌坊和辟雍,琉璃牌坊是為教育而設的牌樓,形制為三門四柱七檐樓,覆黃色琉璃瓦。辟雍是國子監的中心建筑,大殿為頂部重檐,覆黃色琉璃瓦,屋脊為四角攢尖,鎏金寶頂式,大殿四面全部為三交六碗菱花圖案,繪以金龍和璽彩畫,四周紅色回廊圍繞,大殿為正方型,殿內頂為金龍彩畫井口式天花,采用抹角架梁。辟雍北面為彝倫堂,是國子監藏書的地方,單檐懸山頂,面闊七間。院東側為繩愆廳、率性堂、誠心堂、崇志堂,西側為博士廳、修道堂、正義堂、廣業堂。彝倫堂后面有自成院落的敬一亭,嘉靖七年(1528年)增建。

                        北京孔廟建筑群也是坐北朝南,現存三進院落,占地23000多平方米。由南至北主體建筑依次為先師門、大成門、大成殿、崇圣門、崇圣祠,先師門前有嵌琉璃雕花磚影壁。第一進院落樹立198通進士題名碑,第一和第二進院落共有一座明代御碑和13座清代御碑,在大成門東西側臺基上放有乾隆年間仿制周代石鼓共10枚。第二進院落的大成殿是祭祀孔子的主殿,九間五進,重檐廡殿頂,四坡五脊、覆黃色琉璃瓦,檐下單翹雙昂七踩斗拱,前檐下裝飾為六宛菱花隔扇門窗、大小額枋和璽彩畫,正中木龕置“至圣先師孔子神位”,兩側供奉四配、十二哲的神位,內外懸匾共11塊。大成殿兩側為東西兩廡,古時供奉先儒先賢。崇圣祠自成院落,祭祀孔子五代先祖的場所。在孔廟和國子監夾道處現存放有189通“乾隆石經”,刻立于乾隆五十六年(1791年)。
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