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                        修復時光碎片,留住歷史記憶 走近曲阜的這群“文物醫生”

                        來源:濟寧晚報發布:孔廟保護協會日期:2017-05-05點擊:

                         

                        本報記者鮑童劉偉棟攝影報道
                        去年播出的《我在故宮修文物》這部紀錄片,讓文物修復師這個遠離公眾視野的職業瞬間“火”了起來。其實,這些“文物醫生”離我們并不太遠,在曲阜就有這么一群每天與文物相伴的人,他們嗅著歷史的沉積,用自己平凡且千錘百煉的雙手,讓一件件經歲月侵蝕的文物和古建筑再次煥發容光,工匠精神也在他們身上呈現得淋漓盡致。
                        堅守老手藝
                        古建筑煥發新生機行走在曲阜古城內,面對著眼前宏偉壯觀的“三孔”古建筑群時,很多人都為其精湛的工藝而驚嘆。這群宏偉的古建筑雖歷經千年洗練,如今依舊散發著不可掩蓋的浩然之氣,功勞卻要歸功于這些“文物醫生”。
                        日前,山東省文物局發布首批“山東省文物修復師”,曲阜市三孔古建筑工程管理處的孔令德、邢海洋也位列其中,可以說他們是世代守護曲阜古建筑的代表之一,也是古建修復這門傳統手藝的傳承者。據了解,曲阜市三孔古建筑工程管理處,其前身是成立于1949年的曲阜縣文物管理委員會古建筑修繕隊,是國內最早的古建修繕隊伍之一。半個多世紀以來,這支隊伍始終致力于“三孔”等古建筑的保護與修繕,致力于中國古建筑文化及營造技藝的傳承、研究和發揚。更加直觀地說,它的設立就是為了嚴格按照中國傳統古建筑技藝,維修好曲阜古建筑。
                        延續了傳統工藝與做法,最大程度真實完整地恢復“三孔”等古建筑的原貌、保存歷史信息,保留和延續了地域建筑風格與特征。孔令德談起自己的工作時說:“從事文物修復這個職業,往小了說是延續這門技藝和傳統的工藝,如果沒有我們把老一輩的工藝傳承下去,就會面臨失傳的可能,以后就沒人會了。往大了說,游客再來曲阜慢慢的就沒有東西可以看了,現在要及時進行保護修繕,保護曲阜的形象,把文物更好地留給后人。”

                        世家的傳承
                        有些人為此業而生目前,曲阜市三孔古建筑工程管理處現包含工種有木工、瓦工、油漆彩畫工、木石雕刻工、機電工等。據管理處副主任孔令德介紹,在這些人中,現在能稱得上“老師傅”的還有六七十位,“這些老師傅基本上都在50歲以上,最大的65歲。這些人有的把一個工種干了一輩子,那真的可以稱得上工匠。”孔令德說。
                        據了解,管理處的技術工人大多來自修繕世家,其祖、父輩就從事孔氏家族的房屋等修繕保養,世世相襲,代代傳承,他們將傳承古老的修繕技藝,運用到新時期的文物保護事業中來。邢海洋就是其中的代表,2001年高中畢業后,邢海洋就來到了三孔古建筑工程管理處工作,“我的父親也是一位老文物修復師,從事木作的工作。這里的很多人都是從父親、爺爺那里學來的老手藝,一代一代慢慢傳承下來的。”邢海洋告訴記者。
                        作為地道的曲阜人,邢海洋小時候的記憶也伴隨著這些宏偉的古建筑群,“我感覺修文物必須有很強的責任感,畢竟文物代表著曲阜的過去,是一代一代傳下來的東西,我們要按照最傳統的工藝,把文物修復到最健康的狀態。”邢海洋告訴記者:“所謂的傳統工藝,都是一代一代傳承下來的東西,比如說針對古建筑屋面的‘苫背’這一傳統工藝,是在古建筑的木基層修復完之后所進行的,要多道工序才能成活,其中一道工序與北京的官式做法不一樣,有咱當地自己的傳統做法,北京官式做法是白灰摻上青灰和麻刀,咱們這里則是白灰和麥秸摻在一起。”

                        還原本色
                        細心擦拭
                        修舊如舊

                         
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