中國孔廟保護協會

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                        馬君武

                        來源:未知發布:admin日期:2017-01-25點擊:

                        馬君武

                        當年為了早出狀元,恭城民眾還專門在孔廟中建了一座狀元橋,于是人們相互約定俗成,只有考取狀元者,才能從狀元橋上走過去,否則只能從側門繞道而行。遺憾的是,自從中國有了科舉制度后,恭城就未曾見過一個狀元郎從狀元橋上走過。

                        然而,當歷史邁進20世紀的時候,茶江河畔驟然人才輩出,仿佛恭城孔廟也特別顯靈似的。本來,恭城瑤鄉就頗具神秘色彩,而孔廟出現的諸多奇異自然景觀和 獨特文化現象,常常令人匪夷所思,嘆為觀止。中國近代最杰出的教育家有北蔡(元培)南馬(君武)二位,其中的馬君武先生,曾任中華民國大總統孫中山先生的第一任秘書長、民國廣西第一任省長、廣西大學的創始人及第一任校長,他同時又是世界公認的杰出科學家。

                        馬君武于1881年7月14日出生在恭城孔廟左側30米處的廂房,一直到5歲時才離開恭城。馬君武早年就讀于桂林體用學堂。1900年入廣州法國教會所辦丕崇書院學法文。1901年入上海震旦學院。同年6、7月間赴日本京都帝國大學讀化學。1903年結識孫中山,矢志反清革命。此間,馬君武由改良主義者轉變為革命民主主義者。1905年8月,第一批加入同盟會,和黃興、陳天華等人共同起草同盟會章程,并成為《民報》的主要撰稿人之一。年底回國,任上海公學總教習,積極宣傳革命。為避免清政府迫害,于1907年赴德入柏林工業大學學冶金。武昌起義爆發后回國,作為廣西代表參與起草《臨時政府組織大綱》和《中華民國臨時約法》,并任南京臨時政府實業部次長。1912年出任國會參議員。1913年二次革命失敗,再度赴德入柏林大學學習,獲工學博士。1916年回國。1917年參加孫中山發起的護法運動,任廣州軍政府交通部長。1921年,孫中山就任非常大總統,馬君武任總統府秘書長;接著就任廣西省省長。后因軍閥橫行,被迫辭職出走。1924年國民黨實行改組,馬君武跟不上革命形勢,思想趨于保守,和馮自由、章炳麟等人發表宣言,反對國民黨改組和聯俄、聯共、扶助農工三大政策。1925年出任北洋政府司法總長,被國民黨第二次全國代表大會開除黨籍。

                        馬君武精通英、日、德、法等國文字,曾用舊詩格律譯拜倫、歌德、席勒等人的詩篇;編譯了《德華字典》等書,并第一個翻譯出版了達爾文的《物種原始》,在當時產生了較大影響。馬君武后半生致力于科學教育事業,先后任上海大夏大學、北京工業大學、上海中國公學校長。1927年,應廣西省政府之邀在梧州創辦廣西大學,任校長。在任期間,辛勤規劃操持,聘請有才識之土和進步學者任教,提倡科學研究,作出了一定貢獻。“九·一八”事變發生后堅主抗日,他激于愛國義憤,作了《哀沈陽》一詩,諷喻張學良。抗日戰爭爆發后,出任國民參政會參政員。1940年8月1日,在桂林病逝。

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