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                        最后的儒家馬一浮:教育探索

                        來源:新京報發布:孔廟保護協會日期:2016-09-24點擊:

                         

                         

                        在當代談“新儒家”,人們首先會想到梁漱溟,會在與梁先生生平和思想相關的資料里看到“馬一浮”三個字,知道這是一位儒家的老先生,一位國學大師。這些大師級的人物更多的是活在學界后輩的口傳中,離開專業學術圈子,便都湮沒。馬一浮,更是在時代風流云散前后都陌生的名字。現在,借由一部半是生平、半是思想研究的評傳《馬一浮和他的大時代》,這位畢生寂寞的儒家的形象開始逐漸變得清晰起來。

                        身世迷局:訣別西學歸隱33年

                        與那個時代中國知識人相似,如若不是社會革命的風起云涌——或者說橫生枝節,聰慧過人且家學淳厚的馬一浮,無疑會步入典型“學而優則仕”的人生旅程,況且馬一浮十六歲已經在紹興縣的科舉考試高中榜首,初步為士民等級社會所認可。但19世紀末的中國,在列強步步緊逼,國門洞開之時,“西學東漸”之風也愈演愈烈,馬一浮,這位和魯迅、周作人同年,與杜亞泉同學且從舊學規范化的學術啟蒙一路走來的青年學人,直面混亂動蕩的社會局勢和家國命運,也開始將目光投向了西方。

                        1902年6月,清政府駐美使館留學生監督公署招聘秘書,此前刻苦學習英文、法文和日文、與同仁創辦翻譯雜志有長期知識準備的馬一浮應征并被錄取。1904年5月,馬一浮于歸國途中轉道日本,自費留學,但并未注冊學校,主要初衷是為了與摯友謝無量、馬君武重逢。這一時期他讀了大量的西方學術著作,并且有過一個龐大的學術計劃,但從日本回國后,馬一浮對西學的熱情很快冷卻,“成為20世紀初中國涌現的眾多的向西方求索真理的青年學子中早早回歸傳統的一位。”

                        從回國到辛亥革命爆發,馬一浮一直隱居于杭州的西子湖畔,遠離塵世的動蕩與喧囂,潛心治學。從1905年一直到1938年,期間只有應蔡元培邀請,短暫出任民國教育部秘書長,不久后便辭官歸去。這段隱居的時間長達33年——這是一個人精力最旺盛的時期,包括整個青年和中年時代。這是馬一浮生平的最大迷局。

                        馬一浮在日訪學達半年之久,在日本期間,一直積極地為《民報》投稿,流亡者及留學生中的革命氣氛令他“歡欣鼓舞”,但回國后為何沒有投身革命而轉向書齋?出國前后在語言、文化和學術上大量知識儲備和思想準備,歸國后對西方學術亦曾有過的龐大研究整理計劃,馬一浮為什么后來會徹底訣別西學,而選擇重新回到傳統儒學中來?

                        對于前者,評傳作者滕復認為“根本的原因來源于他對時局的悲觀。家庭的遭際及自身境況的凄涼孤獨對于他的悲觀心理自然也造成了相當大的影響。”而這種悲觀和對心靈的保守,也似乎解答了第二個問題:“他逐漸對過去所熱情追求的西學以及種種新學的真理性產生懷疑,從而回到傳統,并且最終回到他為之付出了畢生而且也成就了他的一生的儒學。”這種解釋稍嫌模糊,也是材料所限,走進歷史人物的真實內心畢竟是天下第一等難事。總之,馬一浮度過生平最重大的拐點之后,終于隱身古寺禪房、浸淫舊學整理,閉戶不出,偶訪高僧,與外界寫詩與道友唱和,尺牘往還,只接待學術水準相當的訪客,多少年后,文瀾閣走出一代儒學新宗。

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