中國孔廟保護協會

                        有朋自遠方來-孔子
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                        孔廟祭祀簡介

                        來源:未知發布:admin日期:2017-01-25點擊:

                        孔廟的主要用途是祭祀孔子及先賢先儒,這也是孔子后裔的主要職責。孔廟祭祀從孔廟設立之日始起。漢以后,隨著孔子地位的逐步升高,祭祀的規格也就逐漸提高。南朝時期,宋文帝元嘉二十二年(公元445年),皇太子釋奠樂用登歌(裴松之議:釋奠用八佾奏登歌,此釋奠孔子用樂之始),北魏孝文帝延興二年(公元472年)春二月,定祭孔子廟之制,惟用酒脯,禁婦女雜合。北宋太祖建隆元年(公元960年),帝謁孔子廟,釋奠用永安之樂。宋真宗大中祥符三年(公元1010年)頒釋奠儀注及祭器圖,元武宗至大三年(公元1310年)冬十月,運登歌樂器于闕里孔子廟:元仁宗延佑五年(公元1318年)春正月,置孔子廟雅樂。六年,置闕里孔子廟司樂一員(從孔思晦之請也)。此后,曲阜孔廟祭祀便有了專門的司樂。后逐漸形成定制大成之樂。明以后,大成樂舞生一般在一百二十人左右,多時可達一百八十余人,主要樂器有:龠、箎、笛、塤、和笙、編鐘、編磬、弦琴、瑟等,配以鐘鼓。

                        孔廟祭祀分為釋奠儀、月朔釋菜儀、月望、行香儀、歲時常祭儀、告祭儀、祭中興祖儀、皇帝親祭大典、御遣官祭告儀等種類。據資料記載,歷史上有十二個皇帝十九次親自來曲阜祭祀孔子。另外還有一些御遣官員經常來祭孔。現在孔廟內保存了很多關于歷代帝王祭祀孔子的祭文碑刻。

                        1984年,曲阜市首次舉辦國際孔子誕辰故里游,1989年改為中國曲阜國際孔子文化節,每年于孔子誕辰日在孔廟舉行祭祀大典。
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